Miltiades, one of the most important figures of ancient Greece, served as the general of the army of Athenians which defeated the Persians in the famous Battle of Marathon.
Visitors to the Archaeological Museum of Olympia stand in awe before the well-preserved artifact, which could tell stories that couldn’t even be captured in thousands of books.
The discovery of the helmet of Miltiades
The magnificent helmet was recovered from the ruins of the Temple of Zeus in Olympia. Its dome is missing, but the rest of the Corinthian-style helmet is almost intact after 2,500 years.
On the side are the words “ΜΙΛΤΙΑΔΕΣ ΑΝΕ[Θ]ΕΚΕΝ [Τ]ΟΙ ΔΙ,” which means “Militiades offered his helmet to Zeus.
Historians argue that the helmet was found in the temple for one of two reasons. Either the great warrior wanted the support of Zeus for an upcoming battle, or the offering was to thank the god for a battle won.
If the latter is true and Miltiades wanted to express his gratitude to Zeus for defeating the Persians in the Battle of Marathon, then the discovery of his helmet is of even greater significance and the priceless artifact itself even more awe-inspiring.
Based on the writings of Plutarch and Herodotus, some historians and archaeologists do indeed believe that Miltiades offered the helmet to Zeus after he returned victorious from Marathon, thus saving the great city-state of Athens from the hands of the Persians.
Of course, this, in turn, preserved the course of history and Western Civilization as we know of it today.
The Battle of Marathon
Miltiades (550 to 489 BC) was born an aristocrat, the son of Cimon Colelamos, a famous Olympic chariot racer who was a champion in three Olympic Games.
He received a good education which not only helped him become an able politician but a great general, as well.
When he became the ruler of Athens, he defended the city against Persian despotism, and showed his resolve and determination when he put the Persian heralds who came to demand the surrender of the city to death.
Miltiades then struck out from the city with his outnumbered army and beat the Persians at Marathon.
The Battle of Marathon is one of the most famous ancient battles in the entire world, generating numerous legends and stories over the millennia based on writings of ancient historians, such as Plutarch and Herodotus.
The two armies clashed on the Plain of Marathon in 490 BC in an area located some 42 km (about 26 miles) north of Athens.
It was Miltiades’ idea to fight the Persians far from the city, knowing that a siege would be disastrous. With his clever strategy, he positioned his troops so that they dealt a heavy blow to the Persians, forcing them to retreat.
From the writings of Herodotus, modern historians assume that he must have spoken to old veterans who had known and fought under Miltiades, as he reported several details of the battle.